What are the types of fire alarm systems?

The following are the different types of the Fire Alarm System:

1. Conventional fire alarm system

a. Conventional fire alarm system uses physical cabling to connect several detectors and call points. Conventional fire alarm system has no way to identify immediately the exact location of the fire, but can be arranged in “Zones” to easily identify the location of the cause of the alarm. Its devices are cheaper but will consume more cable wires compare to addressable, since each device will be connected to the control panel by its own cable wire. This system are mainly used specially in smaller property.
Conventional fire alarm system
Conventional fire alarm control system introduction

2. Addressable fire alarm system

a. Addressable fire alarm system has the same detection principle, except that each detector can be given a set address that can help to identify the exact location of the detector that initiated the alarm, that can be seen in the fire alarm control panel. Addressable fire alarm system saves a lot of wire compare to conventional system, since the devices can share one cable wires up to the last device. Both ends of the wire is loop connected to the fire alarm control panel. This system are very suitable for large and high buildings, since they are able to pinpoint exactly which devices are triggering the alarm.
addressable fire alarm system
Addressable fire alarm system introduction


3. Wireless fire alarm system

a. Wireless fire alarm system, is hassle-free to install compare to conventional and addressable since it does not use any conduit and cable wires. However, even though you saved a lot of money in material and labor cost, the hardware and programming are higher than the wired systems. The devices are battery powered and can be placed anywhere and can be easily relocate if needed.
Wireless Fire Alarm System
How does wireless addressable fire alarm system work


Fire Alarm System Components 

The main component of fire alarm system are the following:
1. Fire Alarm Control Panel
Fire Alarm Control Panel is the brain or central hub of a fire alarm system. It displays the location and status of the alarm devices, and it gives precise location of the device that cause the alarm.
fire alarm control panel
2. Fire Alarm Initiating Devices
Fire Alarm Initiating Devices are the devices that detects signs of fire and triggers the alarm. They are connected to the fire alarm system control panel. Initiating devices includes smoke detectors, heat detectors, flame detectors, manual pull station and fire sprinkler water flow switch.
Fire Alarm Initiating Devices
3. Fire Notification Devices
Fire Notification Devices are the audible and visual devices in fire alarm system, it includes fire alarm horn, speaker and bell. Its main function is to alert people at risk in the event of a fire, that is why it is considered as the most important components of fire alarm system.
Fire Notification Devices
4. Primary Power Supply
Primary power supply is typically supplied by the local utility, and also from generators that are located in remote areas wherein the electrical grid is not available. 
5. Backup Power Supply
Backup power supply commonly supplied by batteries and stored internally or adjacent to main fire alarm control panel or can be also from generator. It must also provide a 24 hours of power supply to control panel in case of power shortage.

How Fire Alarm System Works? 

In an event of a fire emergency, the fire alarm system main role is to detect fire and to alert people at risk inside the building and emergency response team to control the situation as fast as possible. Fire alarm system key functions is to detect (by the use of smoke detectors, heat detectors, flame detectors, etc.) , alert (by the use alarm horn, speaker, and bell), and monitor (control panel). 

Fire Alarm System Maintenance 

A functioning and well-maintained fire alarm devices can help reduce injuries, save lives and properties. The fire safety systems inspection, routine maintenance, and testing will help one in keeping in compliance with the local/state fire inspectors and also their insurance carrier. To keep the best condition of the fire alarm devices, it is advisable to keep a scheduled maintenance and check the following: 
1. Checking of physical appearance of the fire alarm devices
2. Smoke Detectors should be cleaned & tested for sensitivity levels (addressable type)
3. Fire alarm control panel should be tested for all alarm, trouble, supervisory, reset & silence function
4. Checking of the devices power supply
5. Checking/ replacement of batteries
6. Checking/ removal of any obstruction on the devices that may cause false alarm or malfunctioning
7. Checking if the alarm is audible
8. Devices must be replaced when exceeded 10 years from the manufactured date